Efficacy of multiple Biomarkers: NGAL, KIM1, Cystatin C and IL18 in predicting pregnancy related acute kidney injury

  • Rubina Naqvi SIUT
  • Nazli Hossain
  • Sofia Butt
  • Zeenat Bhellar
  • Erum Fatima
  • Sanam Imtiaz
  • Palwasha Ghulam Moosa
  • Khawar Abbas
  • Salma Batool Jafri
  • Sadia Khan
Keywords: Acute Kidney injury (AKI), NGAL, KIM-1, Cystatin C, IL-18

Abstract

Objective: Several biomarkers like NGAL, KIM-1, IL-18, and Cystatin C has been previously reported as reliable marker to predict AKI. However, their predictive accuracy varies widely. We aim to observe the efficacy of multiple markers, NGAL, KIM-1, Cystatin C and IL-18, in obstetric population who are at risk of developing AKI.

Methods: This prospective study was carried out between June 2021 to March 2022 at Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology Unit II, Ruth Pfau KM Civil Hospital and Sindh Institute of Urology & Transplant (SIUT), Karachi Pakistan. On women brought to OBGYN-ER with the diagnosis of hemorrhage (antepartum and postpartum), hypertension (pre-eclampsia and eclampsia) and sepsis. The urine samples and 3cc blood was collected at the time of admission, blood sample processed for biochemistry at time of admission and repeat blood samples for serum creatinine at 24 and 48 hours. Urine was stored at -80ºC and later evaluated for NGAL, KIM-1, Cystatin C and IL-18. Serum Cystatin C was also processed for the time zero sample. The biomarkers were tested using ELISA assays.

Results: A total of 149 women were included in the study, 83% of these women were non-booked. Twenty-six (17%) women developed AKI. Serum Cystatin C, urinary Cystatin C and urinary NGAL were found significantly raised in women who developed AKI. While KIM-1 and IL-18 were not raised to statistical significance in this population. However, urinary KIM-1 along with urinary Cystatin C were significantly raised in women with positive quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA).

Conclusion: This study validates the use of serum and urinary Cystatin C and urinary NGAL as highly predictable biomarkers for the development of AKI and nullifies urinary IL-18 and KIM-1 in this regard.

doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.39.1.6930

How to cite this: Naqvi R, Hossain N, Butt S, Bhellar Z, Fatima E, Imtiaz S, et al. Efficacy of multiple Biomarkers: NGAL, KIM1, Cystatin C and IL18 in predicting pregnancy related acute kidney injury. Pak J Med Sci. 2023;39(1):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.39.1.6930

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Published
2022-11-19
How to Cite
Naqvi, R., Hossain, N., Butt, S., Bhellar, Z., Fatima, E., Imtiaz, S., Ghulam Moosa, P., Abbas, K., Jafri, S. B., & Khan, S. (2022). Efficacy of multiple Biomarkers: NGAL, KIM1, Cystatin C and IL18 in predicting pregnancy related acute kidney injury. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 39(1). https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.39.1.6930