Subtle morpho-functional kidney changes in type-2 diabetes mellitus patients: A duplex ultrasound assessment
Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrine disease with serious effects on multiple organs including the kidneys. This study aimed to investigate the subtle effects of type 2 DM (T2DM) on the kidneys.
Methods: This was a prospective case-control study conducted in the Radiology Department of University of Science and Technology Hospital (USTH) campus, Sana’a, Republic of Yemen, from 1 January 2020 to 31 November 2020. The renal length (RL), renal width (RW), resistive index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) were prospectively measured in patients with T2DM and healthy controls. The results were compared using the independent samples t-test. Comparisons were likewise performed between patients with controlled DM and patients with uncontrolled DM.
Results: A total of hundred individuals, 50 diabetic patients and 50 controls, were enrolled in this study. Their mean age was 54 ± 7.88 years (range: 40–75 years). The RL, RI, and PI of both kidneys were significantly higher in T2DM than in the control group. Moreover, the RL, RI, PI and creatinine were slightly higher in patients with uncontrolled than in those with controlled DM.
Conclusion: T2DM has significant accentuating effects on the RL, RI and PI associated with low effective renal plasma flow, even before acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease diagnosis, which may be attenuated by careful regulation of DM. Ultrasound Doppler is a highly valuable imaging modality for evaluating the subtle effects of T2DM on kidney dimensions and blood flow. The RI can be implemented as a tool for the early diagnosis of kidney disease and contribute to slowing the disease progression and preventing renal failure.
How to cite this:
Alareqi AA, Alshoabi SA, Qurashi AA, Hamid AM. Subtle morpho-functional kidney changes in type-2 diabetes mellitus patients: A duplex ultrasound assessment. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):674-681. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4699
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