Etiology of Hydronephrosis in adults and children: Ultrasonographic Assessment in 233 patients

  • Sultan Abdulwadoud Alshoabi Diagnostic Radiologic Technology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University
  • Dahhan Saleh Alhamodi Unit of Ultrasound Imaging, Department of Radiology, Amran Hospital, Amran, Republic of Yemen
  • Mohammed Ali Alhammadi Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Prince Mohamad bin Abdulaziz Hospital, National Guard, Almadinah Almunawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • Abdullah Fahad Alshamrani Department of Diagnostic Radiology Technology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Almadinah Almunawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Keywords: Etiology, Hydronephrosis, Calculi, Pregnancy-induced hydronephrosis, Ultrasound imaging

Abstract

Objectives: Hydronephrosis (HN) is dilatation of the collecting system of the kidney due to obstruction of urine outflow. This study intended firstly, to investigate the efficacy of ultrasound (US) imaging to determine the cause of HN, and secondly, to list the causes of HN.

Methods: In this retrospective study, 233 patients with HN were scanned to determine the cause of the HN in the period from 1st January 2016 to 31st October 2017. Categorical results were written as frequencies and percentages.

Results: Out of 233, 91.41% were adults and 8.58% were children (P<0.001), 66.10% were male and 33.90% were female (P<0.001). In 55.36%, HN was in the right kidney and 44.64% was in the left (P=0.116). Exactly 58% of patients were suffering from grade-2, 21.5% grade-3, 11.6% grade-1, and 8.2% grade-4 HN. US imaging can determine the cause of HN in 70.4% of patients. Kidney or ureteric calculi were the cause of HN in 54.1% of cases, reflux was in 7.3%, and pelviureteric junction (PUJ) stenosis was in 3.9%. In cases of calculi induced HN, 25.3% of the calculi were in the vesicoureteric junction (VUJ), 21.5% were in the renal pelvis, 6.4% were in the PUJ or upper ureter, and only 0.9% were in the middle ureter.

Conclusion: Ultrasound imaging can determine the cause of HN in more than two thirds of patients. Calculi are the most common cause of HN even in children and are most common in the VUJ.

Abbreviations:
HN: Hydronephrosis, US: Ultrasound, PUJ: Pelviureteric Junction,
VUJ: Vesicoureteric Junction, SFU: Society of Fetal Urology,
MHz: Megahertz, SPSS: Statistical Package for the Social sciences,
IBM: International Business Machines, NY: New York, CI: confidence interval.

doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.5.3951

How to cite this:
Alshoabi SA, Alhamodi DS, Alhammadi MA, Alshamrani AF. Etiology of Hydronephrosis in adults and children: Ultrasonographic Assessment in 233 patients. Pak J Med Sci. 2021;37(5):1326-1330. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.5.3951

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Author Biographies

Dahhan Saleh Alhamodi, Unit of Ultrasound Imaging, Department of Radiology, Amran Hospital, Amran, Republic of Yemen

Unit of Ultrasound Imaging, Department of Radiology, Amran Hospital, Amran, Republic of Yemen

Mohammed Ali Alhammadi, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Prince Mohamad bin Abdulaziz Hospital, National Guard, Almadinah Almunawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Prince Mohamad bin Abdulaziz Hospital, National Guard, Almadinah Almunawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Abdullah Fahad Alshamrani, Department of Diagnostic Radiology Technology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Almadinah Almunawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Department of Diagnostic Radiology Technology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Almadinah Almunawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Published
2021-07-15
How to Cite
Alshoabi, S., Alhamodi, D., Alhammadi, M., & Alshamrani, A. (2021). Etiology of Hydronephrosis in adults and children: Ultrasonographic Assessment in 233 patients. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 37(5). https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.5.3951
Section
Original Articles