Exploring maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with Type-1 Diabetes: A study from Pakistan

Pregnancy outcomes in women with T1DM

  • Musarrat Riaz
  • Saima Askari
  • Raheela Naseem
Keywords: Pregnancy outcomes, T1DM, Materno-fetal complications, Preconception education, Unplanned pregnancies


Background & Objective: Pregnancy in women diagnosed with Type-1 diabetes mellitus poses a higher risk of experiencing complications related to the health of the fetus, the mother, and the newborn, along with potential obstetric issues. The objective of this study was to examine the maternal and fetal outcomes, as well as complications faced by pregnant women with type-1 diabetes, and to identify potential preventable factors.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study, conducted at Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology (BIDE), Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan (January 2022 - January 2023), focused on registered pregnancies of women with Type-1 diabetes. A predesigned questionnaire recorded demographic information, diabetes and obstetric history, clinical details, treatment specifics, maternal, perinatal, and neonatal outcomes.

Results: This study included 100 women with pre-existing Type-1 diabetes (mean age: 15.11 ± 5.64 years at diabetes diagnosis). Of these, 72% reported unplanned pregnancies, with a mean HbA1C at conception 8.29%. Median gestational age at delivery was 32.15 ± 10.82 weeks. Delivery outcomes included 40% normal vaginal deliveries and 60% C-sections (9% emergency, 51% elective). Stillbirths occurred in 14 cases, while 16 women experienced one miscarriage, seven had two, and 10 had three miscarriages. Glycemic targets (fasting) were achieved in 55 women, and post-meal targets only in 29, whereas, neonatal complications included hypoglycemia in 13 and low birth weight in 12 neonates.

Conclusion: The high frequency of unplanned pregnancies and cesarean sections along with poor management of pre-pregnancy care and poor glycemic control results in compromised maternal and perinatal outcomes in this high-risk group.

doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.40.7.9199

How to cite this: Riaz M, Askari S, Naseem R. Exploring maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with Type-1 Diabetes: A study from Pakistan. Pak J Med Sci. 2024;40(7):1349-1354. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.40.7.9199

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to Cite
Riaz, M., Askari , S., & Naseem, R. (2024). Exploring maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with Type-1 Diabetes: A study from Pakistan: Pregnancy outcomes in women with T1DM. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 40(7). https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.40.7.9199
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