Right-sided infective endocarditis with ventricular septal defect

  • Fatina Munawar
  • Ikram Ahmed
Keywords: Infective endocarditis, Ventricular septal defect, antibiotic prophylaxis


Infective endocarditis (IE) affects the endothelium of the heart, with the heart valves most commonly involved. It has been documented that the annual incidence of infective endocarditis is 3-10 per 100,000 patient-years1. However, it can be underestimated since the incidence in developing countries cannot be determined accurately. Here, we present a case of a 37-year-old male who was referred from a local health facility with shortness of breath on presentation; the patient was anuric for one day and initial laboratory investigations showed metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, sepsis, and deranged renal function tests. The patient had received a three-week course of intravenous (IV) piperacillin-tazobactam at the previous health facility, being diagnosed as a case of infective endocarditis. An initial transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) showed vegetation on the pulmonary valve; however, the patient was neither an IV drug abuser nor did he have any history of implantation of intracardiac devices or central venous catheters. There was no recent or remote history of dental or surgical procedures. Due to the acute kidney injury, hemodialysis sessions and IV imipenem were started. As the patient’s hemodynamic profile improved by the fifth day of admission, TTE was repeated, revealing a small ventricular septal defect (VSD). This case report highlights the importance of even small VSD that could potentially lead to right-sided IE. Surgical correction of VSD could prevent such a life-threatening condition.

doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.40.7.8219

How to cite this: Munawar F, Ahmed I. Right-sided infective endocarditis with ventricular septal defect. Pak J Med Sci. 2024;40(7):1587-1590.  doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.40.7.8219

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to Cite
Munawar, F., & Ahmed, I. (2024). Right-sided infective endocarditis with ventricular septal defect. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 40(7). https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.40.7.8219
Case Reports