Validity and reliability test for problem areas in Diabetes-Five item short form (PAID-5) Indonesia version

  • Tunjung Arini Budi
  • Raden Bowo Pramono
  • Anggi Wicaksana Universitas Gadjah Mada
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Emotional distress, PAID-5, Psychometric testing, Reliability, Validity


Background and Objective: Emotional distress experienced by patients with diabetes (PWD) can affect glycemic control and quality of life. However, limited tools are available in Indonesia to detect emotional distress in PWD in clinical setting or research. This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Indonesia version of the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID-5) scale.

Methods: After the cross-cultural adaptation method was conducted, psychometric tests were done from August to November 2019 at affiliated hospitals in Yogyakarta by involving 100 adult PWD. All PWD with no medical records of mental health problems or cognitive disorders were voluntarily included. Content and construct validity and internal consistency measurements were used to evaluate the psychometric properties.

Results: The mean age was 61.2 years of the men and women who equally participated in the study and mostly were non-working patients. The PAID-5 resulted in five question items to identify the emotional distress of PWD in the Indonesian language. Some minor modifications were done in items four and five after discussing them with the original authors and experts in Indonesia. The results showed item content validity index for item and scale were 0.6-0.8 and 0.72, respectively. The calculated r-values ranged from 0.751 to 0.888, which were higher than the r table (0.197). The Cronbach alpha of the Indonesia version of PAID-5 was 0.87 with inter-item and item-total correlations of 0.43-0.71 and 0.61-0.79, respectively.

Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that PAID-5 is considered valid and reliable to assess emotional distress among PWD and can be useful in clinical setting or for research purposes. Continued assessment of emotional distress is applicable and helps patients to better deal with their emotional distress.


How to cite this: Budi TA, Pramono RB, Wicaksana AL. Validity and reliability test for problem areas in aaDiabetesFive item short form (PAID-5) Indonesia version. Pak J Med Sci. 2023;39(3):737-741. doi:

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to Cite
Budi, T. A., Pramono, R. B., & Wicaksana, A. (2023). Validity and reliability test for problem areas in Diabetes-Five item short form (PAID-5) Indonesia version. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 39(3).
Original Articles