Human Monkeypox: Old virus with new Epidemiological and Transmission Trends

  • Sultan Ayoub Meo College of Medicine, King Saud University
Keywords: Human Monkeypox, Transmission trends, Epidemiology


Human monkeypox is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by a monkeypox virus. The monkeypox virus history originated in 1958 after the occurrence of a pox-like illness in monkeys. In September 1970, the first case of human monkeypox was identified in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Africa. This year, from January 01, to September 30, 2022, the virus swiftly spread from endemic to non-endemic counties, involving 106 states, infecting 68,017 people; 689 cases from 07 endemic African countries and 67,328 cases in 99 non-endemic countries in Europe, America, Asia and Oceania continents. The disease caused 27 deaths in 13 countries worldwide. The human monkeypox disease significantly affects the population in South, North and Central America 34767 (51.11%), Europe 32047 (47.11%), Africa 707 (1.03%), Asia 351 (0.51%), and Oceania continent 145 (0.21%). The occurrence of the disease is high in males with age ranges of 21-55 years. The common clinical features in monkeypox patients are skin rashes (95%), fever (72%), malaise (69%), chills (67%), pruritis (64%), headache (64%), enlarged lymph nodes (63%) myalgia (60%) and nausea and vomiting (20%). The transmission trends of the disease are rapidly changing; the virus is not limited to close contact with humans. It can spread through body fluids, respiratory droplets, and sexual contact. The disease can transmit during travelling, contact with soiled materials, infected cloths, bed linen, objects, air pollutants, and in various workplace environments. The monkeypox virus has adopted multiple transmission routes, and swiftly spreading and developing challenging and threatening situations worldwide.


How to cite this:
Meo SA. Human Monkeypox: Old virus with new Epidemiological and Transmission Trends. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(8):2061-2064. doi:

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to Cite
Meo, S. A. (2022). Human Monkeypox: Old virus with new Epidemiological and Transmission Trends. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 38(8).

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>