Outcome of head injury in motorbike riders

Keywords: Motorbike accidents, Helmet use, TBI, GCS, GOS, RTA


Objective: To determine the impact of helmet wearing on traumatic brain injury.

Methods: We analyzed 400 cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in motorbike riders with and without helmet, from July 2017 to December 2020 presenting to the neurosurgery department at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi, Pakistan. The medical records were analyzed for CT scan findings, length of hospital stay, complications (mortality and disability), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Glasgow outcome score (GOS) at time of discharge.

Results: A total of 400 patients with head injury due to motorbike accidents were included and all were male patients. They were equally divided into two groups, 200 in Group-A (with helmet) and 200 in Group-B (without helmet). Majority of the unhelmeted patients i.e. 102 (51%), needed admission in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) compared to 70 (35%) in helmeted. When comparing non-helmeted patients to helmeted patients, the total median length of hospital stay was greater among non-helmeted patients (10 vs 05 days). Mortality was higher among non-helmeted patients seen in 50 (25%) as compared to 14 (7%) in helmeted patients. Overall, the good outcome was observed in 119 (59.5%) patients in Group-A as compared to70 (35%) patients in Group-B while 81 (40.5%) showed bad outcome in Group-A and 130 (64%) in Group-B. The failure to wear a helmet was found to be strongly linked with abnormal neuroimaging more complications, poor outcome and lower GCS on discharge as compared to patients using helmet.

Conclusion: Lack of helmet use is linked to abnormal brain imaging, more complications, and a longer stay in the hospital after a head injury.

doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.39.2.6371

How to cite this: Ahmad S, Rehman L, Afzal A, Javeed F. Outcome of head injury in motorbike riders. Pak J Med Sci. 2023;39(2):390-394.  doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.39.2.6371

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Author Biographies

Shakeel Ahmed, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi


Lal Rehman, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi

Professor and Head of Department


Ali Afzal, University Hospital Notingham



How to Cite
Ahmed, S., Rehman, L., Afzal, A., & Javeed, F. (2023). Outcome of head injury in motorbike riders. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 39(2). https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.39.2.6371
Original Articles