Prevalence of Lipohypertrophy and its Associations in Insulin-Treated Diabetic Patients

  • Arsalan Nawaz UCMD, University of Lahore
  • Muhammad Adnan Hasham 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, SIMS, Services Hospital Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Maria Shireen Senior Registrar, Department of Medicine, Lahore Medical & Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Mehwish Iftikhar 4. Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, Khawaja Muhammad Safdar Medical College , Sialkot, Pakistan
Keywords: Lipohypertrophy (LH), diabetes mellitus, Insulin


Background and Objectives: Lipohypertrophy is a major complications of insulin therapy especially attributed to incorrect insulin technique. The objective was to determine the frequency of lipohypertrophy in diabetic population on insulin and its associations.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Services Hospital Lahore from July 1st, 2020 to December 31st, 2020. Total of 363 diabetic patients, fulfilling the inclusion criteria were approached. The patients were examined and interviewed through a validated questionnaire. The data was stratified according to the age, gender, duration of diabetes, duration of insulin use, frequency of LH and duration since last instructions reviewed. The chi-square test was applied. Data was analyzed using SPSS 22.

Results: Mean age of the study population was 49.71± 13.36 years. Majority were females (57.6%). LH was noted in 22.86% of participants (n=83). There was significant statistical difference noted (P <0.05) between different age groups as 29.7 % of patients in age group above 45 had LH as compared to 19.6% in the below 45 years age group. More females (28.2%) were having LH than the males (15.6%) with P<0.05. Also, significant difference was noted for needle reuse more than 10 times, more than two injections per day and longer duration since last instructions reviewed. No significant difference was noted between different devices for injection as well as for duration of diabetes. LH is strongly associated with hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia with P<0.05.

Conclusion: A significant diabetic population on insulin has noted to have LH, and the risk is more with aged population, female gender, more injections per day and multiple time needle reuses. Risk of LH can be reduced by reinforcing education.


How to cite this: Nawaz A, Hasham MA, Shireen M, Iftikhar M. Prevalence of Lipohypertrophy and its Associations in Insulin-Treated Diabetic Patients. Pak J Med Sci. 2023;39(1):---------. doi:

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to Cite
Nawaz, A., Hasham, M. A., Shireen, M., & Mehwish Iftikhar. (2022). Prevalence of Lipohypertrophy and its Associations in Insulin-Treated Diabetic Patients. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 39(1).