Concerns of iodized salt and its effects for women seeking antenatal care in Pakistan

  • Faryal Shaikh Fazaia Ruth Pfau Medical College (FRPMC))
  • Seema N. Mumtaz
  • Aqeel Ahmed Shaikh
Keywords: Iodized Salt, antenatal care seeking women, education, Concerns and effects, Antenatal care


Background and Objective: Pregnant women are the most susceptible group for Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) whose neonate are at the risk of brain impairment, if they are iodine deficient in utero. The study was carried out to analyze the concerns and effects regarding iodized salt and IDD in women seeking antenatal care in Pakistan

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Obstetrics OPD at Civil Hospital Karachi from April 2017 to January 2018. In this study, antenatal care seeking women (n=360) visiting obstetric outpatient department (OPD) at public sector tertiary care hospital of Karachi were interviewed face to face using a structured questionnaire. Systematic random sampling method was employed. Kruskal Wallis test was applied to assess the significance among study variables.

Results: Sixty-three (63.6%) of pregnant women heard about iodized salt. Approximately 40.6% of them received iodized salt related information through mass media. Ninety (90.6%) were ignorant that their unborn child needs iodine for brain development. A statistically significant association was found between the educational status (p<0.001), household income (p<0.001), age (p=0.016), ethnicity (p=0.018), trimester (p=0.005) with the knowledge of study participants regarding iodized salt and IDD.

Conclusion: There is an immense need to address the present concerns of women seeking antenatal care by advocacy and health education on individual and at mass level regarding the use of iodized salt among women seeking antenatal care. Advocacy can be done by governmental initiatives, medical personnel and through mass media in all tertiary care hospitals of Pakistan.


How to cite this:
Shaikh F, Mumtaz SN, Shaikh AA. Concerns of iodized salt and its effects for women seeking antenatal care in Pakistan. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(8):2195-2201. doi:

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to Cite
Shaikh, F., Mumtaz, S. N., & Shaikh, A. A. (2022). Concerns of iodized salt and its effects for women seeking antenatal care in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 38(8).
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