Factors affecting prognosis of status epilepticus among patients presenting to a tertiary care hospital
Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the etiology, outcomes and prognostic factors associated with status epilepticus (SE) admissions in Neurology Department of a tertiary care hospital.
Methods: A retrospective review was performed on all SE admissions at Dr. Ruth K.M. Pfau Civil Hospital Karachi over a five-year period from July 2015 to June 2020. Demographic, clinical, and etiological factors were investigated for prognostic value. Statistical tests were applied to determine significant prognostic factors. A five percent significance level was used.
Results: A total of 176 patients were included in the study. Mortality was reported in 22 cases (12.5%) and morbidity at six months was observed in 44 cases (25.0%). Male gender, previous history of SE, prolonged seizure duration, and late presentation to hospital were significantly associated with mortality (p<0.05). De novo cases of SE tended to be older (p=0.048) and were associated with morbidity at follow-up (p=0.000). The most common causes of epilepsy in our patients with SE were CNS infections (n=54) and Idiopathic epilepsy (n=34). Non-compliance to medicines/under-dosing was the most common provocative factor (n=68). Acute symptomatic causes of SE were more likely to be associated with greater morbidity (p=0.000). Refractory and super-refractory SE were strongly associated with higher mortality (p=0.000). A longer duration of hospital stay was associated with higher morbidity (p=0.000).
Conclusion: Male gender, poor control of seizures, CNS infections, prolonged seizures, delayed hospital arrival and refractory/super-refractory status epilepticus were key determinants of mortality in our setting. Previous history of status epilepticus, and acute and symptomatic etiologies were associated with higher morbidity.
How to cite this:
Jawaid W, Irfan M, Shafee SM, Barry SJ, Shah SMM, Shahbaz N. Factors affecting prognosis of status epilepticus among patients presenting to a tertiary care hospital. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(1):16-22. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.1.5195
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