Comparative analysis of dental pulp stem cells and stem cells from human exfoliated teeth in terms of growth kinetics, immunophenotype, self-renewal and multi lineage differentiation potential for future perspective of calcified tissue regeneration
Background and Objectives: Owing to high proliferation rate, multipotency and self-renewal capability, dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) and stem cells from human exfoliated teeth (SHED) have become stem cell source of choice for cell based regenerative therapies. We aimed to compare DPSC and SHED as stem cell sources with a future use in regeneration of calcified tissue.
Methods: Explant derived human DPSC (n=9) and SHED (n=1) were cryopreserved, thawed and expanded for analysis of population doubling time, colony forming unit assay and efficiency. A growth curve was plotted to determine population doubling time, while colony forming numbers and efficiency was determined at plating cell densities of 5.6, 11.1 and 22.2 / cm2. The isolated cells were characterized for the presence of stem cell markers by immunophenotyping and immunofluorescence staining, and tri-lineage differentiation. Statistical analysis was performed by Pearson correlation, Exponential regression and two way Anova with Tukey test at p<0.05.
Results: DPSC and SHED exhibited spindle shaped fibroblast like morphology. SHED was found superior than DPSC in terms of proliferation and colony forming efficiency. Immunophenotypes showed that DPSC contain 62.6±26.3 %, 90.9±14.8% and 19.8±0.1%, while SHED contain 90.5%, 97.7% and 0.1% positive cells for CD90, CD73 and CD105. DPSC were strongly positive for vimentin, CD29, CD73, while reactivity was moderate to weak against CD44 and CD90. SHED expressed vimentin, CD29, CD105, CD90 and CD44. Both were negative for CD45. Upon induction, both cell types differentiated into bone, fat and cartilage like cells.
Conclusion: Cultured DPSC and SHED were proliferative and exhibited self-renewal property. Both DPSC and SHED expressed stem cell markers and were able to differentiate into bone, fat and cartilage like cells. Thus, these could be a suitable stem cell sources for cell based regenerative therapies.
How to cite this:
Naz S, Khan FR, Khan I, Zohra RR, Salim A, Mohammed N, et al. Comparative analysis of dental pulp stem cells and stem cells from human exfoliated teeth in terms of growth kinetics, immunophenotype, self-renewal and multi lineage differentiation potential for future perspective of calcified tissue regeneration. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(5):1228-1237. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.5.5187
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