Are we missing varices by implementing Baveno-VI recommendation of not screening patients with Compensated Advanced Chronic Liver Disease?

Keywords: Cirrhosis, Varices, Baveno-VI, Gastroscopy, Compensated Advanced Chronic Liver Disease

Abstract

Objectives: This study aimed to validate Baveno-VI recommendations for variceal screening in cACLD in our region and proposed our own cutoff values.

Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on cACLD patients from August 2020 till April 2021. Patients segregated into Group-A, having Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) of ≥ 20 kPa and platelet of ≤ 150 × 109 cells/L; and Group-B having LSM of < 20 kPa and PLT of > 150 × 109 cells/L. Gastroscopic findings were segregated into three categories, VNT, Varices Not Needing Treatment (VNNT) and No Varix (NV). ROC plots were generated for LSM and Platelet for VNT for sensitivity, specificity, Negative and Positive Predictive Values were calculated.

Results: A total of 134 patients of cACLD were included. Group-A had 72 (53.7%) patients and Group-B had 62 (46.3%) patients. Group-A had 6 (8.3%) NV; 18 (25.0%) VNNT and 48 (66.7%) VNT. Group-B had 26 (41.9%) NV, 24 (38.7%) VNNT and 12 (19.4%) VNT. The sensitivity of 66.7%, specificity of 80.6% and NPV of 67.56% was obtained. Thus 19.4% VNT were missed on following Baveno VI recommendations. ROC in our study suggested cutoff value of 11.5 kPa with sensitivity of 100% and 1-sepcifity pf 78% (AUROC = 0.865; p < .001) of LSM below which screening gastroscopy could be avoided. The positive and negative predicted values for 84.85% and 100% respectively. Cut off value of platelet count for VNNT came out to be ≥ 97.5 × 109 cells/L with AUROC 0.891 (p < .001), having sensitivity of 100 % and 1-specificity of 83.3%.

Conclusions: Substantial number of VNT in cACLD patients are missed by following Baveno-VI recommendations and these needs to be revised on regional basis.

List If Abbreviations: AASLD: American Association for Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), AUROC: Area Under Receiver Operating Characteristic, cACLD: Compensated Advance Chronic Liver Disease (cACLD), CTP: Child-Turcotte-Pugh, DCLD: Decompensated Chronic Liver Disease (DCLD), EV: Esophageal Varices, KPa: Kilo Pascal, LSM: Liver stiffness measurement (LSM), NPV: Negative Predictive Value, NV: No Varix (NV)., PPV: Positive Predictive Value, ROC: Receiver Operating Characteristic, VNNT: Varices Not Needing Treatment (VNNT) and VNT: Varices Needing Treatment (VNT).

How to cite this:
Ali FS, Bader N, Zuberi BF, Rasheed T. Are we missing varices by implementing Baveno-VI recommendation of not screening patients with Compensated Advanced Chronic Liver Disease? Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(1):1-8.  doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.1.4796

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Author Biographies

Faiza Sadaqat Ali, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan

Department of Medicine & Gastroenterology

Senior Registrar

Nimrah Bader, Oklahoma State University Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA

Department of Internal Medicine

Resident III

Bader Faiyaz Zuberi, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan

Gastroenterologist and Hepatologist
Meritorious Professor
Dean Medicine & Allied Sciences
Director Institute of Clinical Sciences
Director Clinical Trials Unit

Tazeen Rasheed, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan

Department of Medicine & Gastroenterology

Assistant Professor

Published
2021-11-12
How to Cite
Ali, F., Bader, N., Zuberi, B., & Rasheed, T. (2021). Are we missing varices by implementing Baveno-VI recommendation of not screening patients with Compensated Advanced Chronic Liver Disease?. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 38(1). https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.1.4796
Section
Original Articles

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