Clinical analysis of 33 cases with neonatal cerebral infarction
Objective: To investigate the etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of neonatal cerebral infarction (NCI) to further improve the understanding of the disease.
Methods: Clinical data and follow-up results of 33 cases of NCI in neonatal intensive care unit of a first-class hospital from September 2009 to September 2019 were retrospectively analyzed.
Results: All 33 patients were diagnosed with NCI by MRI. Among them, 31 cases (93.94%) were full-term infants, 25 cases (75.76%) were mother’s first birth, and 18 (54.55%) cases were males. Pregnancy complications were reported in 18 cases (54.55%), and 19 cases (57.58%) had perinatal hypoxia history. Seizures were the most common first symptom and clinical manifestation in the course of disease (81.8%). There were 27 cases (81.82%) of patent foramen ovale (PFO) among NCI cohort. Ischemic cerebral infarction occurred in 32 cases (96.97%). The middle cerebral artery and its branches were more frequently involved, mainly on the left side. The acute stage of NCI was managed by symptomatic support treatment, and the recovery stage involved mainly rehabilitation treatment. Among the 33 cases, five cases were lost to follow-up, two patients died, 26 patients survived without complications, one case had cerebral palsy, one case had language retardation, and six cases had dyskinesia. Poor prognosis was associated with the involvement of deep gray matter nuclei or multiple lobes, and intrapartum complications. Vaginal mode of delivery and longer hospital stay were associated with better prognosis.
Conclusions: Complications leading to placental circulation disorder during pregnancy and perinatal hypoxia are common high-risk factors of NCI. The seizure is the most common clinical manifestation. There is a possible correlation between PFO and NCI. Involvement of deep gray matter or multiple lobes and intrapartum complications may indicate poor prognosis, while vaginal delivery and prolonged hospitalizations are associated with better prognosis of NCI.
How to cite this:
Yang N, He X, Yin C, Zhao L. Clinical analysis of 33 cases with neonatal cerebral infarction. Pak J Med Sci. 2021;37(7):1800-1807. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.7.4720
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