Vaginal discharge during pregnancy and associated adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes

  • Dr. Meharunnissa Khaskheli Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro
  • Dr Shahla Baloch Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5660-6640
  • Dr Aneela Sheeba Baloch Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6054-294X
  • Syed Ghulam Sarwar Shah Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington Way, Headington, Oxford, OX3 9DU, England, UK
Keywords: Feto-maternal complications, Pregnancy outcomes, Pregnant women, Vaginal discharge

Abstract

Objectives: To observe the effects of vaginal discharge during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes.

Methods: This observational study was undertaken form June 2018 to 31 May 2019 period in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences hospital Jamshoro Unit IV. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 85 pregnant women. All the pregnant women with vaginal discharge were included in the study, while the women with bleeding and other medical disorders during pregnancy were excluded. Data was analyzed.

Results: Women’s mean age as 27.4 (±4.7) years and most were 28-35 weeks pregnant (n=29, 34%) and primigravida (n=35, 41%). Seventy six women (89%) presented with vaginal discharge while nine women (11%) reported no vaginal discharge. Of those with vaginal discharge,53 women (69.7%) had vaginal infections: bacterial vaginosis (n=21, 39.6%), vaginal candidiasis (n=17, 32.1%) and vaginal trichomoniasis (n=15, 28.3%). Pathological vaginal discharge (PVD) was associated with vaginal irritation (n=30, p<0.0001), vaginal pain (n=50, p<0.0001), fever (n=12, p=0.015), uterine contractions (n=31, p<0.0001), premature membrane rupture (n=29, p<0.0001), abortion (n=13, p=0.009), pre-term delivery (n=24, p<0.0001) and post-partum endometritis (n=19, p=0.0006). PVD was associated with neonatal outcomes i.e. low birth weight (n=24, p<0.0001), low Apgar score at birth (n=22, p=0.0001), neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (n=21, p=0.0002), neonatal intensive care hospitalisation (n=20, p=0.002) and early neonatal death (n=16, p=0.003).

Conclusion: Pathological vaginal discharge (PVD) during pregnancy is more frequent and is associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes.

doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.5.4187

How to cite this:
Khaskheli M, Baloch S, Baloch AS, Shah SGS. Vaginal discharge during pregnancy and associated adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Pak J Med Sci. 2021;37(5):1302-1308. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.5.4187

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Published
2021-07-15
How to Cite
Khaskheli, D. M., Baloch, D. S., Baloch, D. A., & Shah, S. G. (2021). Vaginal discharge during pregnancy and associated adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 37(5). https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.5.4187
Section
Original Articles