The cardiovascular complications in COVID-19: Focus on acute cardiac injury

  • Sahrai Saeed Department of Heart Disease, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
  • Ronak Rajani Cardiothoracic Centre, Guy's & St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.
Keywords: Acute cardiac injury; Antihypertensive treatment; Cardiovascular complications; Coronavirus disease 2019; COVID-19; Hypertension; Prognosis


At the end of 2019 a novel coronavirus was identified in Wuhan, China. The disease caused by the severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was designated COVID-19 (corona virus disease 2019) by the World Health Organization in early 2020. Up to 80% of patients with COVID-19 experience mild symptoms with severe or critical disease occurring in the remaining 20%. Severe disease is manifested by the development of pneumonia, hypoxia and radiographic lung involvement while critical disease indicates multiorgan involvement with significant respiratory or cardiac compromise. The current estimated case fatality rate from COVID-19 is approximately 1%. Epidemiological studies have shown that advanced age, male gender, previous chronic lung disease, cardiovascular and kidney disease, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for the severity of disease course. In the current focused review, we present an overview of the acute cardiovascular complications of COVID-19, their detection and impact upon prognosis.


How to cite this:
Saeed S, Rajani R. The cardiovascular complications in COVID-19: Focus on acute cardiac injury. Pak J Med Sci. 2021;37(3):908-912. doi:

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to Cite
Saeed, S., & Rajani, R. (2021). The cardiovascular complications in COVID-19: Focus on acute cardiac injury. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 37(3).
Review Article