Intraoperative flexible nephroscopy during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: An 8 years’ experience

  • Yasir Masood Shifa International Hospital
  • Nadeem Iqbal Shifa International Hospital/PKLI
  • Raja Mohsin Farooq Rahbar Medical and Dental College
  • Sajid Iqbal
  • Faheemullah Khan Aga khan university Hospital, Karachi.
Keywords: PCNL, Stones, Flexible Nephroscopy, Urolithiasis, Staghorn


Objectives: To see the effect of intra operative antegrade flexible nephroscopy during Percutaneous nephrolithotomy on stone free rate.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records of patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy from 2010 to 2017 for renal stones >2cm. Patients found eligible were divided in, Group-I who did not have intraoperative Flexible nephroscopy and Group-II who had flexible nephroscopy during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. All procedures were done by senior consultants. Variables like Mean age, side, stone size, skin to stone distance and Hounsfield unit were compared. Outcomes like Stone free rate, hospital stay and operative time were compared between the groups.

Results: The study included 248 patients, consisting 85 (34.3%) females and 163 (65.7%) males. Mean age ± SD was 45.8±13.8 years. Both group were similar in characteristics like mean age, stone size, skin to stone distance and Hounsfield units. The overall stone free rate was 71%. It was not significantly different between the groups, 76% in Group-II vs. 67% in Group-I. However stone free rate markedly improved with flexible nephroscopy in patients with staghorn calculi. Mean operative time and hospital stay were similar between the groups.

Conclusions: Intraoperative flexible nephroscopy during percutaneous nephrolithotomy significantly increases stone free rate in patients with staghorn stones.


How to cite this:
Masood Y, Iqbal N, Farooq RM, Iqbal S, Khan F. Intraoperative flexible nephroscopy during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: An 8 years’ experience. Pak J Med Sci. 2021;37(3):716-720. doi:

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to Cite
Masood, Y., Iqbal, N., Farooq, R. M., Iqbal, S., & Khan, F. (2021). Intraoperative flexible nephroscopy during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: An 8 years’ experience. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 37(3).
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