Prevalence-pattern and risk factors of Cesarean section in a multiethnic cohort

  • Khadija Murtaza Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
  • Madeeha Chaudhry Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
  • Shabana Nazeer Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
  • Sajid Malik Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
Keywords: parturition, birth, maternal health, mode of delivery, obstetric delivery, pregnancy complications


Objective: This study was aimed to elucidate the prevalence-pattern and determinant of cesarean section (CS) in a multiethnic cohort from Pakistan.

Methods: Through a cross-sectional study design, women delivering at a tertiary care center were recruited during 2013-2017. Data on socio-demographic variables, obstetric complications and birth outcome were obtained. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed.

Results: A total of 5,275 pregnant women were recruited and 43% of the deliveries underwent CS. Odds of CS were significantly higher in subjects originating from Azad JammuKashmir and Sindh regions, speaking Potohari and Pahari languages, women in advance ages, and those who were housewives. CS had significantly lower odds of prenatal mortality but increased odds of postnatal mortality. Obstetric factors that appeared to be significant predictors of CS were multiparity, breech position, fetal distress, oligohydroamniosis, preeclampsia, and previous scar.

Conclusion: This study revealed high variability in CS in various socio-demographic strata of study population. The obstetric complications highlighted in this study may be reduced by proper perinatal counseling and pregnancy monitoring and should be the focus of intervention programs as suggested in the Millennium Development Goals.


How to cite this:
Murtaza K, Chaudhry M, Nazeer S, Malik S. Prevalence-pattern and risk factors of Cesarean section in a multiethnic cohort. Pak J Med Sci. 2021;37(3):711-715. doi:

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to Cite
Murtaza, K., Chaudhry, M., Nazeer, S., & Malik, S. (2021). Prevalence-pattern and risk factors of Cesarean section in a multiethnic cohort. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 37(3).
Original Articles