Presentation, diagnosis and management of locally advanced breast cancer: Is it different in low/middle income countries?

  • Shahneela Manzoor JPMC
  • Mariyah Anwer Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center
  • Salim Soomro Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center
  • Dileep Kumar Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center
Keywords: Breast Cancer, Third-World Countries


Background and Objective: Breast cancer incidence is increasing and it is highest in low income countries. The main challenge is regarding awareness, screening, late presentation and its management in a third-world country. Our objective was to share the experience faced in various presentations, diagnosis and management of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) in a third world country and discuss if they are different with respect to developed countries.

Methods: It is a retrospective case series study performed at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi, from January 2015 to December 2017, over period of three years. Data was collected from the record maintained by authors about patients presenting in breast clinic. Patients of breast cancer were managed in breast clinic over 3 years. Our study included patients who presented with LABC based on their clinical presentation confirmed by histopathological diagnosis and followed by surgical management. Statistical analysis for students t-test was performed using SPSS (version 20.0). A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: One hundred twelve patients presented with LABC over period of 3 years. All but two were female. Mean age was 52 years (range 26-78 years), SD 18.96. On presentation size of tumor was 5cm & more in 103 (91.9%) patients. Involvement of axilla was in 86 (76.7%). Chest wall was involved in 22 (19.6%). Total T3 and T4 were 71 (63.3%) and 41 (36.6%) respectively Diagnosis of all patients was confirmed by histopathology. Neoadjuvant was given to all patients to downstage the tumor. ER/PR was positive in 46(41.1%), HER-2/neu positive in 31 (27.6%). On staging breast carcinoma was metastatic in 13(11.6%) with liver, lung and bone in 4 (3.5%), 3 (2.7%) and 6 (5.3%) respectively. Breast conservation was done in 6 (6.1%) patients, Modified Radical Mastectomy was done in 86 (86.9%), Radical Mastectomy in 3 (3.03%), Toilet Mastectomy in 4 (4.045) and 13 (11.6%) patients were not operated.

Conclusion: In our series 65% of all breast cancers are LABC at presentation. In low/middle income countries high percentage of LABC at presentation result in high metastatic disease, poor prognosis and limits conservation of breast. Awareness and education can improve outcomes.


How to cite this:
Manzoor S, Anwer M, Soomro S, Kumar D. Presentation, diagnosis and management of locally advanced breast cancer: Is it different in low/middle income countries (LMICs)?. Pak J Med Sci. 2019;35(6):1554-1557.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Author Biographies

Mariyah Anwer, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center

Assistant Professor

Salim Soomro, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center

Professor of Surgery

Dileep Kumar, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center

Associate Professor

How to Cite
Manzoor, S., Anwer, M., Soomro, S., & Kumar, D. (2019). Presentation, diagnosis and management of locally advanced breast cancer: Is it different in low/middle income countries?. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 35(6).
Original Articles