Efficacy of Levamisole in children with Frequent Relapsing and Steroid Dependent Nephrotic Syndrome at Tertiary Care Center-Karachi
Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of levamisole in maintaining remission of proteinuria in children with frequent relapsing and steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome (FR/SDNS).
Methods: This observational study on 81 children with FR /SDNS was carried out from June 2007 - June 2017 at The Kidney Center-Postgraduate Training Institute, Karachi-Pakistan. Levamisole (leva) along with low dose prednisolone on alternate day (AD) was used after induction of remission with daily oral prednisolone in children with FR/ SDNS for 6-36 months. Patients with steroid resistance were excluded. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics.
Results: Eighty-one patients with FR (66) or SD (15) received levamisole treatment. Mean age at diagnosis was 3.72 ±2.33 years. Levamisole was used on AD in 59.25% and daily in 40.74% of cases. Twenty-four could not complete six months and were excluded, 57 patients completed treatment duration of 15.68±9.93 months and 51 post-leva follow-up of 11.70±11.23 months. Mean cumulative prednisolone dose per patient before, on-leva and post-leva was 3389.81±2785.22, 2471.97±2024.98 and 661.37± 905.37 mg respectively. Mean relapse rate per year before leva, on -leva and post -leva was 3.30 ±0.50,0.98± 1.1and 0.79±1.27 respectively. Levamisole was effective in 90% of patients. During post-leva follow up, 76.4% patients, maintained remission, whereas 23.5% behaved as FR/SD and require further immunosuppressive therapy.
Conclusions: Levamisole was effective in maintaining remission in 90% while on treatment, whereas it maintained remission after discontinuation in 76.4% cases. Levamisole may be used as first steroid sparing agent before other immunosuppressive therapies in children with FR/SDNS. Further studies are required for optimal duration and dosage schedule.
How to cite this:
Moorani KN, Zubair AM, Veerwani NR, Hotchandani HJ. Efficacy of Levamisole in Children with Frequent Relapsing and Steroid Dependent Nephrotic Syndrome at Tertiary Care Center-Karachi. Pak J Med Sci. 2020;36(6):1193-1198. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.6.2337
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.