Rising HIV seroconversion rates & associated risks among employees of organization ‘X’: A case control study, Pakistan, 2017

  • Eisha Mansoor
  • Naila Azam
  • Saifullah Khan Niazi
  • Naveen Sheikh
  • Mirza Amir Baig
  • Mansoor Tariq Azim
  • Nimra Klair
Keywords: HIV Seropositivity, HIV, seroconversion

Abstract

Background and Objectives: In 2004 Pakistan escalated from ‘low-prevalence’ to ‘concentrated’ phase of HIV epidemic. Despite global decline in HIV incidence since 1997, rate of HIV infections in Pakistan is persistently rising since 1990. Available literature focusses on key populations or localized outbreaks limited by short study duration and regional applicability of results. We studied HIV seroconversion trends over a period of 8 years in a geographically diverse population and evaluated associated risk factors.

Methods: A desk review of HIV surveillance data from 2010 to 2017 was carried out at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. A case was defined as any adult employed in organization ‘X’, initially screened for HIV but later seroconverted on ELISA and western blot. Case-control study was conducted on cases diagnosed in 2017. Age and sex matched controls were identified from same population sub-group. Structured telephonic interviews were conducted and statistical analysis done at 5% margin of error.

Results: The annual HIV diagnosis rate remained relatively stable till 2015 (< 40 /100,000/yr) after which it rose sharply to 60/100,000/yr in 2016. Upward trend continued in 2017 to reach 125/100,000/yr (>200% increase from baseline). Acquisition of HIV was significantly associated with commercial sex activities (OR=9; 95%CI: 1.25-395).

Conclusion: HIV seroconversion rates among employees of organization X have increased significantly in the past two years. Unlike HIV outbreaks previously reported from Pakistan, sexual route seems to be the predominant mode of transmission. Focus is mandated on prevention of sexual transmission of HIV at national level as well for all vulnerable populations.

doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.6.1735

How to cite this:
Mansoor E, Azam N, Niazi SK, Sheikh N, Baig MA, Azim MT, et al. Rising HIV seroconversion rates & associated risks among employees of organization ‘X’: A case control study, Pakistan, 2017. Pak J Med Sci. 2020;36(6):1349-1354.   doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.6.1735

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Author Biographies

Eisha Mansoor
  •  MBBS
  •  Armed Forces Post Graduate Medical Institute, Rawalpindi
  •  Principle investigator, conducted the study, did advanced statistical analysis & writing of manuscript.
Naila Azam
  • Armed Forces Post Graduate Medical Institute (AFPGMI) Rawalpindi.
  • FCPS (Community Medicine), MCPS (Family Medicine).
  • Conceived, designed & supervised the study, and final approval of manuscript.
Saifullah Khan Niazi
  • Armed Forces Institue of Pathology, Rawalpindi.
  • FCPS (Virology)
  • Did laboratory related analysis, acquisition of data and manuscript writing
Naveen Sheikh
  • Medical Student, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi.
  • Did selection of controls and data collection / entry/ basic analysis.
Mirza Amir Baig
  • MPH, MHM
  • National Institute of Health, Islamabad.
  • Planned methodology, statistical analysis & writing of manuscript.
Mansoor Tariq Azim
  • MBBS, FCPS (General Surgery)
  •  Military Hospital, Rawalpindi
  •  Data collection, data cleaning, interpretation of results and clinical correlation.
Nimra Klair
  • Medical Student
  • Army Medical College, Rawalpindi.
  • Did selection of controls and data collection / entry/ basic analysis.
Published
2020-08-20
How to Cite
Mansoor, E., Azam, N., Niazi, S., Sheikh, N., Baig, M., Azim, M., & Klair, N. (2020). Rising HIV seroconversion rates & associated risks among employees of organization ‘X’: A case control study, Pakistan, 2017. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 36(6). https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.6.1735
Section
Original Articles